Volume 5, 2021
|Number of page(s)||15|
|Published online||18 February 2021|
Effects of jet angle on harmonic structure of sound radiating from the flute
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 441-8580 Aichi, Japan
* Corresponding author: email@example.com
Accepted: 16 January 2021
For an isolated flute head joint, the effects of jet angle on harmonic structure of a single note are investigated within the practical range for human players. The mechanisms of these effects are discussed on the basis of both the radiated sound and the flow field measured with a hot-wire anemometer. The blowing parameters, viz., jet angle (angle between jet direction and window), jet offset (relative height of jet direction from the edge), lip-to-edge distance, and flow rate, were varied independently by using an artificial blowing device based on measured conditions for a human player, where the jet direction is defined as that measured without the head joint. The radiated sound revealed that jet angle varied the differential sound pressure level of the second to third harmonic (ΔSPL) less than jet offset, however, as much as flow rate and more than lip-to-edge distance. The spatial distribution of jet fluctuation center showed that, with increasing jet angle (the jet direction approaches vertical to the window), the jet deflected more inside, so that the actual jet offset was estimated to be further inside. The variation of ∆SPL with jet angle seems to be caused mainly by this shift in the actual jet offset.
Key words: Flute / Harmonic structure / Jet angle / Jet offset
© K. Onogi et al., Published by EDP Sciences, 2021
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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