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Modeling of the effect of negative pressure difference between ear canal and middle ear using a Young’s modulus of E = 100 MPa. Left: Acoustic input impedance at the eardrum ZD and eardrum acoustic shunt impedance Zac for different pressure differences Δp0 in kPa between ear canal and middle ear. Right: Ear canal impedance for different pressure differences Δp0 in kPa resulting from the model using an ear canal radius of 1.7 mm and an ear canal length of 14 mm, together with ear canal impedances from  measured in infants’ ears where the tympanometric peak pressure was smaller −1 kPa (−100 daPa).
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