Volume 6, 2022
|Number of page(s)||12|
|Published online||13 April 2022|
Finite-amplitude sound propagation effects in volume backscattering measurements for fish abundance estimation
University of Bergen, Dept. of Physics and Technology, P.O. Box 7803, 5020 Bergen, Norway
2 Kongsberg Maritime AS, P.O. Box 111, Strandpromenaden 50, 3191 Horten, Norway
3 Institute of Marine Research, P.O. Box 1870, Nordnes, 5817 Bergen, Norway
* Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted: 15 March 2022
Scientific advice for governmental management of marine resources relies on acoustical observation methods. Quantification and identification of fish and plankton species are often achieved using multi-frequency acoustic data. Accurate measurements of backscattering cross-sections and volume backscattering coefficients are essential. Systematic errors from finite-amplitude sound propagation are demonstrated in experimental survey measurements on Atlantic mackerel using 120 kHz and 200 kHz echosounders and high power settings. Finite-amplitude signal distortion causes excess transmission loss that is not accounted for in fisheries acoustics today, other than by fixed limits on the maximum transmitted power. The demonstrated errors are of a magnitude that can seriously bias abundance estimation and species identification. It is shown how the finite-amplitude effects can be modelled and predicted quantitatively, within a framework of electroacoustic power budget equations. A method is provided to calculate related errors in echosounder calibration and oceanic measurement of acoustic volume backscattering. When accounting for finite-amplitude effects in echosounder signal processing, higher transmit powers can be used when needed to improve signal-to-noise ratio or extend measurement range. The results indicate that historical survey data can be adjusted for such errors using numerical simulations. The echosounder characteristics relevant to finite-amplitude effects can be determined by laboratory measurements.
Key words: Fisheries acoustics / Finite amplitude sound / Marine acoustics / Nonlinear acoustics / Sonar
© The Author(s), Published by EDP Sciences, 2022
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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