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Small-signal modeling of the mechanical part which includes: the total mass MCDA (diaphragm, coil and additional mass due to acoustic radiation), the fluid-like damper RSA (mechanical friction and small signal approximation for the acoustic power radiation), primary stiffness K0 and Kelvin–Voigt modeling of the creep effect (K1, R1), with diaphragm position qD, primary elongation q0 and creep elongation q1. Parameters are given in Tables D1 and D2.

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